Tuesday, 11 May 2010

development milestones

development milestones

Infancy and Toddler (Birth to 3 Years)

Physical Development

(Birth - 1 year) - The development of control and mastery over one's own body in
both gross and fine motor skills is the infant's primary physical task, culminating
toward the end of the first year in walking.

(Age 1-2 years) - The infant perfects the gross and fine motor skills that emerged
during the first year by developing balance, coordination, stability, and an improved
ability to manipulate objects.

(Age 2-3 years) - The child develops increased strength and uses motor skills to
master challenges in the environment, such as bicycles, stairs, balls, playground
equipment, eating utensils, crayons, and other objects. The child is developmentally ready to master toilet training.

Cognitive Development

(Birth - 1 year) - Cognition begins with alertness, awareness, recognition, and
interest in visual, auditory, and tactile (touch) stimuli. As motor development
improves, the infant begins to explore and manipulate objects and develops a
rudimentary understanding of their properties. Infants develop object permanence
toward the end of the first year.

(Age 1-2 years) - The emergence of symbolic thought is central to cognitive
development. This results in the ability to understand and produce language.

(Age 2-3 years) - Perfection of language skills and the use of language to
communicate with others is the principle cognitive task.

Social Development

(Birth - 1 year) - The most important social task is the development of attachment to the primary caretaker, most often the child's mother.

(Age 1-2 years) - The child develops affectionate and trusting relationships with
other family members and with adults outside the family. The child can also be
engaged in simple games and play.

(Age 2-3 years) - The child develops rudimentary relationships with other children,
which are usually characterized by "parallel play," that is play in the presence of,
rather than in interaction with, other children. Children also begin to imitate social roles at this time. Toilet training represents a significant internalization of social rules and expectations.

Emotional Development

(Birth - 1 year) - The development of basic trust, a derivative of the positive
attachment between the infant and the primary caretaker, occurs during the first
year. This is a cornerstone of emotional development.

(Age 1-3 years) - The primary developmental task involves the development of
autonomy, which includes mastery and control over oneself and one's environment.
Children develop a rudimentary self-concept, experiencing pride and pleasure at
being "good" and embarrassment, shame, and distress at being "bad."

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