Tuesday, 11 May 2010

Pattern’s of children’s development

What you might observe What they need
Newborn Rooting, sucking and swallowing reflex.

Grasp reflex.

Startle reflex.
All these reflexes are linked to ensure the survival of the baby. Finding nipple or teat, feeding and swallowing milk.

Natural reflex touching and feeling also an instinct from our ape like ancestors.

Normal reflex produced from loud sounds or unexpected movements, baby needs reassurance close contact.
Baby of 3 months Watches movement of own hands and engages in finger play.

Visually alert smiles sociably.

Responds to familiar sounds.
Normal reflex may need stimulation from toys or mother.

Enjoys interaction with others particularly Mother and familiar situations.

Response to smiles and playful handling.

Gets excited at feeding, bath times. Will quieten to Mother’s voice if distressed.
Baby of 9 months Explores objects with lively interest, passing from hand to hand.

Speech becomes more vocalized. Shows signs of happiness and annoyance.

Large movements on floor, rolling, squirming and crawling.
Age related toys and objects that provide stimulus and are safe.

Responds to adults talking, rhyming and singing. Will try to imitate adult. Requires close contact and stimulation.

Provide a safe environment and supervision for them to become more mobile without any danger.
1 year old Definition by use of everyday objects.

Comprehends simple instructions associated with gestures. (waving, clapping, pointing and pat a cake)

Pulls to standing holding onto furniture, walks around furniture and may stand alone for a few seconds.
Interaction from adults, response to requests of spoon, shoes, ball etc. imitate adults.

Interaction from adults playing rhyming and finger games.

Ensure you have a safe environment and toys to aid standing i.e. push and pull toys.
18 months old Uses 6-50 recognisable words and understands many more.

Shows independence in feeding themselves. Able to hold spoon and cup.

Starting to use fine motor skills such as scribbling, using preferred hand or both hands.
Interaction from adults joining in with rhymes and songs and following simple instructions.

Ensure there are opportunities to feed themselves with appropriate finger foods.

Opportunities to use different mediums i.e. pencils, crayons and paints.
2 year old Spontaneously engages in simple role play or make believe activities.

Defends own possessions with determination, no idea of sharing playthings or adult.

Enjoys playing on ride along toys using feet to propel vehicle,
Opportunities to use toys that encourage role play.

Adults who can support play alongside them.

Opportunities for physical play.
4 year old Shows increasing skill in ball games throwing, catching, bouncing and kicking.

Draws recognisable objects and also can explain what is happening in their drawing.

Needs companionship of other children along with the odd disagreement or co-operative play.
Opportunities for physical play outside using correct equipment.

Encouragement to use different materials and equipment i.e. modelling, painting and computer programmes.

Plenty of opportunities to play with other children with adult help and direction when deemed necessary.
5 – 6 year old General behaviour more sensible, controlled and independent, understands rules and boundaries.

Increased control of forming letters and handwriting.

Chooses own friends.
Encouragement and praise to follow boundaries and rules that they can understand.

Encouragement and praise from adults and opportunities to use different materials.

Lots of opportunities to play with other children.
7 – 9 year old Able to read independently.

Plays co-operative with others and has special friend. Enjoys making up their own games.

Skills constantly improving more dexterity and precision in drawing, colouring and making models.
Encouragement and praise plenty of opportunities of support if needed.

Opportunities to play with others and time to enjoy their own creative games.

Equipment and materials to stimulate children’s development.
9 - 11 year old Increased problem solving skills, forming own opinions and making suggestions and decisions.

Shows imagination and creatively.

Take on increased responsibility.
Encouragement and opportunities to develop problem solving and organisation skills.

Try new activities, experiences and challenges to develop new ideas and understanding.

Opportunities to help adults with specific duties in and out of school.
11 – 13 year old Shift their school focus from play centred activities to more academics.

Feel anxious about puberty.

Feel concerns about outward appearance, wanting to fit in with peers.
Support, encouragement and praise.

Adults who can listen and are sensitive to the changes they are going through.

Praise and encouragement to support self esteem and adults who can listen carefully to them.
13 – 16 year old High level of skills in certain subjects.

May start questioning parental authority in the quest for more independence.

Show signs of struggling to belong in society, spend more time with peers. May face peer pressure with issues such as sex and experimentation with alcohol and drugs.
Opportunities and support from adults to discuss their further educational or career requirements.

Adults who can listen and understand their needs and opportunities to become more independent and take control.

Positive adult relationships, with an adult who can listen carefully and is sensitive to the child’s needs. Discuss important issues such as sex, drugs etc.

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